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5 Pedagogical Approaches in the K-12 Curriculum

5 Pedagogical Approaches in the K-12 Curriculum

According to Section 5 of the Republic Act 10533, the curriculum shall use pedagogical approaches that are constructivist, inquiry-based, reflective, collaborative, and integrative. These 5 Pedagogical Approaches in the K-12 Curriculum will serve as a guide for teachers in teaching a lesson.

What is Pedagogy?

It is the heart of teaching. It is the rules and principles that guide effective and efficient activities which lead to learning. (Pritchard & Woollard, 2010)

What are the 5 Pedagogical Approaches in teaching?

The 5 Pedagogical Approaches in teaching under the K-12 Curriculum of the DepEd are Constructivist, Inquiry-Based, Reflective, Collaborative, and Integrative.

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5 Pedagogical Approaches in the K-12 Curriculum

Pedagogical Approaches are often placed on the spectrum from teacher-centered to learner-centered pedagogy. In Teacher-Centered Pedagogy, the teachers are at the center of the learning process and typically rely on methods such as whole-class lectures, rote memorization, and chorus answers. This approach is often criticized, especially when students complete only lower-order tasks and are afraid of the teacher.

Learner-Centered Pedagogy, on the other hand, draws on learning theories suggesting that learners should play an active role in the learning process. Students, therefore, use prior knowledge and new experience to create knowledge. The teacher facilitates this process and also creates or structures the conditions for learning.

Constructivist Approach

This approach is based on the central notion that learners construct their own understanding of the world around them based on experience as they live and grow. They select and transform information from past and current knowledge and experience into new personal knowledge and understanding.

The constructivist approach allows learners to be active in the process of constructing meaning and knowledge rather than passively receiving information. It fosters critical thinking and provides learners with a learning environment that helps them make connections with their learnings.

  • Since the construction is the process of learning, teachers have a big role like:
    • to influence, or create motivating conditions for students
    • take responsibility for creating problem situations
    • foster acquisition and retrieval of prior knowledge
    • create the process of learning not the product of learning

Collaborative Approach

Collaborative learning is a situation in which two or more people learn or attempt to learn something together. Unlike individual learning, people engaged in collaborative learning capitalize on one another’s resources and skills (asking one another for information, evaluating one another’s ideas, monitoring one another’s work, etc.). More specifically, collaborative learning is based on the model that knowledge can be created within a population where members actively interact by sharing experiences and taking on asymmetry roles.

Collaborative Learning is an educational approach to teaching and learning that involves groups of learners working together to solve a problem, complete a task, or create a product.

  • In order to achieve a classroom where a collaborative learning approach works, teachers must fully understand learners’ preferred learning styles and views of learning. Classroom teachers may conduct group activities such as the following:
    • Online – Collaborative Learning
    • Jigsaw Method
    • Think-Pair-Share
    • Integrated Process Approach
    • Peer Teaching

Integrative Approach

The integrative Approach provides learners with a learning environment that helps them make connections of other learnings across the curricula. It focuses on connections rather than teaching isolated facts. This higher education concept is distinct from the elementary and high school “integrated curriculum” movement. Integrated studies involve bringing together traditionally separate subjects so that students can grasp a more authentic understanding. Interdisciplinary curricula have been shown by several studies to support students’ engagement and learning. Specifically integrating science with reading comprehension and writing lessons has been shown to improve students’ understanding of both science and English language arts.

  • 4 Objectives of Integration Pedagogy:
    • Making sense of the learning process
    • Differentiating matters by relevance
    • Applying the learning to practical situations
    • Associating the learned elements

Inquiry-Based Approach

The inquiry-based approach is an important pedagogical approach in teaching Science. This approach requires more than simply answering questions or getting the right answer. It promotes investigation, exploration, search, quest, research, pursuit, and study.

The inquiry-Based Approach is a form of active learning that starts by posing questions, problems, or scenarios—rather than simply presenting established facts or portraying a smooth path to knowledge. The process is often assisted by a facilitator. Inquirers will identify and research issues and questions to develop their knowledge or solutions. Inquiry-based learning includes problem-based learning and is generally used in small-scale investigations and projects, as well as research. The inquiry-based instruction is principally very closely related to the development and practice of thinking skills.

Educators play an active role throughout the process by establishing a culture where ideas are respectfully challenged, tested, redefined, and viewed as improbable, moving children from a position of wondering to a position of enacted understanding and further questioning.

  • Strategies for Inquiry-Based Approach
    • Simulation
    • Demonstration
    • Experiment
    • Field Study
    • Project Work

Reflective Approach

The reflective Teaching Learning Approach means looking at what the teacher and learners do in the classroom, thinking about why they do it and analyzing about it if it works. This is a process of self-evaluation and self-observation.

  • Suggested Strategies:
    • Self Evaluation
    • Self Reflection
  • Suggested Form of Assessment:
    • Diary Presentation
    • Paper writing Reports
    • Journals


Teachers need innovation in teaching as we move on to a better future together with the rapid development of technology. The utilization of effective pedagogical approaches helps the learners to achieve a better learning outcome to realize their full potential. These quality teaching pedagogies provide strong foundations for learning to give hand to students in developing advanced concepts and abilities.

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